Tag Archives: Winemaking

What does “Craft” mean anyway?

Geoffrey Chaucer once wrote

“The lyf so short, the craft so longe to Lerne.”

There has been much publicity recently about the rise of “craft” beverages, mainly beer and spirits as of this point.  There has also been some disagreement as to what “craft” actually means.  Several lawsuits have come up in the recent months targeted towards brewers that are positioning themselves as “craft” brewers however are in actuality much larger than the consumer may believe based on their marketing. Such is the case with this lawsuit, recently posted on Lehrman Beverage Law.  This got me thinking about what craft is supposed to mean and why are only small producers considered craft.  The Brewers Association has even gone out of their way to post a definition of what they consider a “craft” brewer.  The main three guidelines of their definition is that the brewer must be small, independent, and traditional.  In combing through the TTB’s website, I don’t think that there is a legal definition of craft and so far it seems to be up to the industry itself to regulate this term, much like the term “Reserve” in wine.

Let’s look at the literal definitions from Webster’s Dictionary.

There are three ways the word “craft” can be used.

Two are nouns.

1) An activity involving skill in making things by hand

2) a boat or ship.

Obviously it is the first one that we are interested here.

The third is a verb as in “to craft”.

3) Exercise skill in making something.

I have made wine for 12 years now.  I’ve made wine in sizes from 2 cases all the way up to 1.7 million cases. It takes great skill to make wine in any size.  You do have less room for error in the smaller case counts however you have less time to perfect your wine at the larger case counts.  It takes a long time to master winemaking regardless of the size you are working with.  What does this have to do with craft beer?  The interesting thing that struck me while reading the above lawsuit was that it seemed the main argument is that the beer can not be “crafted” due to the large number of cases that are produced under the label.  It made me think about the brew master who I’m sure is working diligently every day to make sure each and every case of Blue Moon is crafted in the same high quality way and likely doesn’t get the credit that I’ve seen smaller brewers get.  Maybe I’m comparing brewing to the wine industry too much however, I’ve seen the same thing happen in wine as well.  Well made wines at the entry level in the marketplace do not get the same respect that wines at the top of the market do.

The “craft” is the profession as a whole; either brewmaster, winemaker, or master distiller.  One cannot say that because one label is a larger production than another that it does not fall under the craft of brewing, winemaking, or distilling.  Our industries are fortunate because they still require a human to produce the product. Unlike other crafts such as woodworking or metal smithing, which have largely been taken over by machines of mass production, the production of beer, wine, and spirits still needs someone to oversee the process.  Of course, there have been improvements in technology, monitoring and efficiency but the key remains that in all three of these beverage industries, regardless of price point, you need someone to craft the beer, wine, or spirit.

Please don’t misunderstand.  I am very excited by the craft movement and the drink local philosophy that comes with it.  With the three tier set up in this country it is REALLY hard for small producers to make a name for themselves but now it seems the consumer is searching these small, independent producers out.  This is FANTASTIC for the industry particularly in a country where the majority of the population still doesn’t drink at all!  I just wanted to put my two cents out to not take the brewer’s association definition of craft too seriously and to remember that even behind that bottle of medium or large production beverage, there is a craftsman (or woman) working hard to perfect their craft.

Winemaker 2 Winemaker: A Conversation With Tony Bish, Chief Winemaker for Sacred Hill

This month’s Winemaker 2 Winemaker interview stays in New Zealand but travels north to Hawk’s Bay to speak with Tony Bish, the Chief Winemaker for Sacred Hill Winery.  With 30 years in the wine industry Tony has 31 vintages under his belt and this year alone he and his team have produced 15 gold medal wines. Tony studied a degree course in wine making at Charles Stuart University in Australia while gaining practical experience working on vineyards in New Zealand and Australia. He joined Sacred Hill in 1985, managing the estate vineyard for the Mason family and was there at Sacred Hill’s inception a year later. He then departed to further his vineyard and winery experience offshore, returning to his roots at Sacred Hill in 1994.

Tony is very much a “vineyard” winemaker, putting into practice the old adage that the best wines are made in the vineyard. To that end he has worked closely with the viticulture team to develop new vineyards, on better sites, in the best grape growing areas in New Zealand.

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NC:  You’ve been in the industry over 30 years now.   What initially drew you to winemaking?

TB: Initially it was the need for a job after running out of money living on a glorious beach in Gisborne.  The long hours were great for saving money, which then funded ski sojourns to the South Island, so I kept doing vintages, and fell in love with wine along the way.  After a few very enjoyable years with this lifestyle, I took the plunge and enrolled in a Bachelor of Oenology Degree in Australia.

NC: When you were starting down the path of winemaking was there a single person who you felt was an important inspiration for your style or did you pull from multiple sources?

TB: Definitely pulled from a wide range of sources.  I try to glean or learn something from every wine I taste. Like many winemakers of my generation, we were taught to be technical winemakers. As I gained more experience, I learnt it’s just as important to know when NOT to intervene as it is knowing when and how to intervene. I know employ a wide range of winemaking strategies that embrace new world science and understanding, with old world sensitivity and “gut feel”.

NC: I don’t know how it goes in NZ but in the US, SB is a very difficult variety to keep from producing sulfides even under the best of circumstances.  Do you see that in NZ as well?

TB: Despite high juice nitrogen status, we find we need to supplement juice nutrition fairly proactively, or else sulphides rapidly form in ferment. We now get our retaliation in first, and add complex nutrients as soon as the ferment is underway, and a repeat ferment feed at about 17 Brix. We assess every Sauvignon ferment twice daily, and if any sulphides appear, we add more food. We are fermenting at relatively low temperatures (10-12C), so this no doubt causes some yeast stress, but this is the best way to preserve desirable volatile aromatics. The key is to have clean ferments as they finish, as any remedial treatment on Sauvignons strips aromatics and the palate.  As an aside, just adding DAP is not the answer. This can just stimulate bigger yeast reproduction, so you have more cells needing feeding, and more sulphides, in a chase your tail cycle of doom.  We recommend complex nutrients that may include a percentage of DAP, but importantly will contain yeast cell wall derivatives and thiamine.

NC: I’ve read about your Sauvage Sauvignon Blanc.  How do you manage a native fermentation in Sauvignon Blanc?  Is there anything that you have to look out for that is different than any ferments using cultured yeasts?

TB: Sauvage is handled very differently in that it is hand picked and whole bunch pressed. We don’t clarify as much, taking more fluffy lees into ferment. We chill our barrel room to manage temperature peak to under 20C in barrel, and this is important. These barrel ferments seem to need less nutrition, but the same proactive approach is taken, with frequent monitoring.

NC:  So many people in the US think of New Zealand as only Marlborough but Hawke’s Bay is one of the warmest areas in New Zealand with a diverse range of varieties growing there.  What are the key aspects of this region that make it unique?

TB: Hawke’s Bay produces most of NZ’s finest wines. We have outstanding Chardonnay, very elegant yet powerful. Our blends made with the Bordeaux varieties have been extraordinary, and many times have sat comfortably along side First Growth Bordeaux’s from great vintages in internationally held blind tastings. These wines are seriously good, and represent great value in the context of global fine wine prices.  Syrah is the most recent star, and has become the darling of the UK wine critics. Distinctive, profound, yet fresh and floral, the best of these are good enough to take to bed!

NC: Is there a vintage in your career that you would like to experience again?

TB: Oh yeah, 2013 was a dream run! But fortunately 2014 was very nearly as good, and arguably even better for Chardonnay. The best years here are defined by long dry warm summers and settled autumn weather for harvest. The hottest years are not necessarily the best; it’s the consistently warm but not baking days that produce our best wines.

NC: What was one of the most memorable winemaking mistakes you ever made that you still think about to this day?

TB: Prematurely opening up a white juice drainer as a young vintage intern and watching 25 tonne cascade on the floor. It was scary (nearly got sluiced into an inclined de-juicer in the process), and the clean up was epic in magnitude.

NC: If you could share only one or two things with younger winemakers, what would be the most valuable piece of knowledge or experience that you pass on?

TB: Well after over 30 years winemaking I feel I am starting to get the hang of it. So be patient, trust your instincts, remember numbers are only a guideline not a philosophy, and sometimes less is more.

NC: Can you describe your philosophy on red wine extraction in haiku?

Glistening black grapes

Like love need oxygen

Or bitter will be.

NC: I checked out your blog at and was very excited to see you are a fellow blogging winemaker.  What got you started?

TB: After just launching my own “indie” wine label, I felt a need to express my voice by blog, to build context and a sense of truth about my wines, but also to bring my consumers along for the ride. It’s fun after all!

NC: In addition to Sacred Hill, do you have any other projects that are very exciting right now?

TB: Between Sacred Hill and my own family label, four kids two dogs and eight chickens, life is busy! But my lovely wife and I have just purchased an acre of coastal land with the most incredible views in the world. So the next project is to design and build a home that does justice to the views and the location. East coast beach magic!

 

 

 

Small Bites: My Quick News Roundup!

There is so much to talk about from the past few weeks while my family and I have been relocating across the country!  I decided to break them down into small bites…

Bite 1: Arsenic Anyone?

I really don’t want to give this story any more time than it takes for me to acknowledge it however Alder Yarrow from Vinography.com did an amazing post telling you why exactly you shouldn’t be worried about this and instead of trying to reinvent the wheel, please read his post here.

Bite 2: WE’RE HERE!!!!!

We arrived into the beautiful and chilly state of New York last weekend and are now settling into our new house.  Currently one entire room is devoted to unpacked, empty boxes but once those get hauled away tomorrow we should be in fairly good shape as far as moving in is concerned.
 

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I started my new job last week and while it is a dramatic change from Robert Mondavi, it should present a good challenge.  Back in January, we closed on 12 acres on the shores of Seneca lake and I went out that day to put “Posted” signs up.  Upon our return last weekend all but 1 of the 6 signs were torn down.  I’m hoping it is just a combination of wind and extreme cold but I can’t help but be worried that the former owner of a nice deer stand on our land may have had something to do with it.  Our goal is to clear much of the land this summer once the soil dries out some from all the snow this winter.  That way we can start to see where our future house and vineyards will go! We are very excited about this new phase of our lives.

Bite 3: Vintage 2015 Update

New York: It’s cold.  It has been VERY, VERY cold this winter.  I’m a little concerned that we may not have many grapes to make wine with from the western side of the state.  Even though we got another 3 inches of snow this morning, signs of spring are everywhere.  Those 3 inches were mostly melted away by mid afternoon.  Robins are showing up and Canadian Geese can be heard flying overhead, heading North.  Maybe we’ll be close to budbreak around the middle of May.

Napa:  Budbreak is everywhere and frost season is in full swing according to a friend of mine.  There has still been very little rain so the area is poised for a 3rd consecutive drought season.  Again, I wouldn’t want the be the grower that has to choose between protecting what crop they may have this year and saving water so that they can ripen that crop.

Those are the bites for the week!  Happy growing season everyone!