Category Archives: Winemaking

Anything having to do with wine production

Unified Symposium 2015: It’s All About Strategy

This Tuesday, the world of wine in the US all converges on Sacramento, CA for the annual Unified Wine and Grape Symposium. I haven’t personally been to Unified in several years. It, for some reason, ended up conflicting directly with the Master of Wine Residential seminar and (for those of you who have followed my journey through the MW) I’m sure you can guess what won. That being said if you plan to attend Unified this year, even if it is just the trade show portion I recommend coming with a strategy for navigating the show. It’s all about strategy.

I’m excited about this year’s programming. I’ve signed up for the entire show starting with the Keynote Speaker Luncheon on Tuesday given by the President of Jackson Family Wines, Rick Tigner. It looks like an incredibly fun talk going over important issues such as constraints of label growth, foreign market opportunities, and sustainability challenges and costs. After that I am torn between a Marketing/ PR session entitled “Content is King” and a Winemaking session focused on achieving quality in “Lower-Brix” wines. I sense that will be a game day decision.
Tuesday is the easy day to plan since the talks are not competing with the trade show. This by itself would take up the entirety of the remaining two days if you really needed to talk to a lot of the vendors who come to pedal there wares. It’s very much like an industry Bazar with unexpected treasures lurking around every corner. Need a new barrel washer? Why yes, maybe I do? A discounted subscription to Wine Business Monthly? Sign me up! A T-shirt that proclaims “I like to Wine” in sparkly rhinestones that would make any 80s bedazzler fan proud? They have that too. Tackling the trade show is all about strategy. Who do you want to see really? What are your top 2 things you need to look for? Add at least an hour and a half for talking with people you randomly run into and haven’t seen in years because that WILL happen.

Wednesday morning is dominated by the State of the Industry address. It is a not to be missed panel featuring what’s hot and what’s not in the industry right now. The afternoon is broken up into a series of very tempting talks and the ever present hum of the Trade Show ( You know, I really would like to see that Shaker Table!) after which comes a Regional Wine tasting because up until this point there really hasn’t been enough wine at this wine industry event. After that, of course, comes the ever popular Alumni and “Friends” gatherings of Fresno State and UC Davis. Oh, Cal Poly has joined the party as well! (Mental note to see if we can organize something for Cornell next year…)
Thursday tends to be more low key. Many of the suppliers start packing up early so if you want to go check out the latest in Stainless contraptions it’s best to go early but if you got all that done yesterday perhaps you want to listen to how to “Future Proof” your buisness. With a great panel of speakers covering a dire set of predictions (no water, no labor, high energy costs, earthquakes, fires, floods, freezes, locusts, plagues… Ok I added those last two) this could be very interesting.

After lunch I’m torn again between another marketing session focused on “Craft” and opportunities for the wine industry ( I sense an MW exam question in the making here) and Sustainability Certifications in a Global Market. (Darn you organizers! Why must you put so many intriguing topics all at the same time!!! Oh look, a new optical sorter! Shiny!!!)

You get the picture. It’s madness. It’s crowded. It’s fun. It’s educational. It’s where anyone remotely interested in wine should be this week. Just make sure you have a game plan, bring a back pack for all the random papers and pamphlets you’ll pick up and don’t get distracted by the shiny objects.

See you there!

Cold Soaks and Color Extraction: My Observations

When the blog “The Wine-o-scope” posted this post, “The value of cold soaks for red winemaking” last week I was intrigued.  Having done extensive phenolic analysis for several years with a few different red varieties, I always like to see what other people are finding.   When I say extensive, I mean extensive.  At my previous job, we would run phenolic analysis by Adams-Harbertson assay every day for EVERY high end red during fermentation.  This was mainly Cabernet Sauvignon but also included Merlot and Cabernet Franc.  We also looked at Pinot Noir just for the fun of it but we determined that the rules that govern phenolic extraction in Bordeaux varieties just don’t apply to Pinot Noir and left that sleeping dog lie.  The timing of anthocyanin and tannin extraction still applies in Pinot Noir but I’ve found through my experience that the best analysis of Pinot Noir is still tasting it frequently.

Here is the reality of things based on real world, non research based experience.  In Bordeaux varieties a cold soak absolutely increases color extraction, particularly with extensive cap management, vs tanks with little to no cold soak.  It does not increase tannin extraction because tannins don’t really start coming into the solution of the wine until a reasonable amount of alcohol has built up.

Take a look at this Cabernet Fermentation below… (My apologies upfront for not being able to figure out how to import an Excel graph into my post).
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You can see that at the point fermentation has started there is already close to 400 ppm of Anthocyanins extracted in the fermentation.  This is after a 6 day cold soak with significant cap management.  You’ll also notice that it is not until day 4 of fermentation (around 15 Brix) that we are able to detect any tannin extraction.  This could be ANY Bordeaux variety fermentation.  They all follow the same pattern.  Just for fun, here is a Merlot graph from the same vintage, same vineyard, and same general area of the vineyard with fermentation starting within a day of the Cab above.

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Aside from noticeably less anthocyanin and tannin content at dryness (because it is Merlot after all) the pattern of extraction is pretty much the same.  Cab Franc is the same pattern as well.

Once one looks at enough of these numbers daily one doesn’t really even need the graph anymore.  You just know what’s going on.

As far as the dangers of cold soak go, yes you do see an increase in other organisms and yes, you do occasionally get the random “wild” fermentation if you push the cold soak over 5 days.  Also, if the fruit is not clean coming in the risk increases so sorting is essential to a clean and healthy cold soak.  Dry Ice is your friend at this point and should be used liberally.

To me the true value of the cold soak is the period you are guaranteed to be extracting color without extracting tannin.  Can you extract the same amount of color without a cold soak?  Of course, but be prepared to have much higher tannin levels at dryness as well since you will be working the cap harder during the time of fermentation when both are extractable.

That’s just my opinion and again, this was not in a research but in real winery experience with no controls.  Take it for what it is worth.

Wandering through Germany: Part 1 – Pfalz

Earlier this year I went on a trip to visit some of the German wine regions. I was in Germany for a work trip supporting our European sales team and decided to do a speedy tour through as many regions as I could during 3 personal days I took at the end of my trip. It was an amazing experience which I was fortunate enough to share with my friend and (at the time) fellow MW student, Martin Reyes.

We visited the Rhine, Pfalz, and my personal favorite, the Mosel.

I was extremely impressed with the quality present in the Rhine and Pfalz. Clearly we don’t get the good stuff in the US! In Pfalz we visited two wineries, Weingut Knipser and Geoge Mosbacher, both of whom changed my idea of wines outside of the Mosel which admittedly I have had a very, very small sample set up until this visit.

Weingut Knipser

 At Weingut Knipser we were hosted by Volker Knipser who was enlightening, not just for the wines but also for his eloquent statements which I felt driven to write down.

On Brands: “We are not a region for brands. Our name is our brand. You can be sure if you have a Knipser you have a good wine.”

On Reputation: “You can only work on your name. That is all you have!” – I could not agree more!

On Terrior: “ Wine is a mosaic. The site is a part of the picture but also important is what you plant, how you train, and what grows. The cellar, not so much but the producer is important.”

Their 2011 Blauer Spatburgunder was amazingly elegant and aromatic made from native yeasts. “If you are looking for body, look to other varieties” – Volker Knipser on Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir). I was starting to think this guy is a genius!

The 2009 GG (Große Gewächse meaning “Great growth” or the German equivalent of Grand Cru) Mandelpfad Spatburgunder was amazing! Super aromatic with lovely soft supple tannins and fresh acid.

At Gerog Mosbacher we were treated to a lovely tour and tasting of some amazing Rieslings. Of course a super friendly winery dog accompanied us on all of our wanderings here.

Georg Mosbacher Pfalz sm

Here the current proprietors, Jürgen Düringer and Sabine Mosbacher-Düringer were our hosts. They were incredibly enlightening on the German wine classification system which was still completely greek to me until this point and the VDP’s (Verband Deutscher Prädikats or the German Quality Winegrowers Association) role in German wines. If you are a wine person, particuarly a Riesling person then it would probably seem that the VDP own most of the acreage in Germany however according to Sabine only 4% of the wineries in Germany belong to the VDP. They are invited to join by consensus of current group members. We tried several Rieslings grown on three different soils; Sandstone, Soils from near the forest, and Calcarious soils. The Sandstone had a decidely mineral flavor with lemon-lime hints, orange blossom, pear and apricot. The near forest soils had very sweet fruit, light minerality, apricot and grapefruit. The Calcarious soils were zesty and more linear in focus with sweet hay and very ripe apricot flavors.

2012 Deidsheimer Mäushöhle Riesling Trocken (Sandstone)

2012 Forester Musenhang Riesling Trocken (Near the Forest)

2012 Wachenheimer Gerümpel Riesling (Calcarious)

We also had a fantastic discussion regarding the aroma of petrol in Riesling. Jürgen weighed in on this and stated that his opinion was that Petrol showing up within the first 2 years is definitively a fault in the winemaking process that comes from high pressure in the press and a high level of phenolics in the juice. However if it shows up after the wine is 10 years old it is the normal Petrol aroma of an aged Riesling. He also stated that atypical aging disorders come from sunburn, drought years or green phenolics from un-ripe years.

It was truly fascinating stuff!

Their top two wines were the following

2012 Pechstein GG (Basalt soil) – Stone and Chalk

A Very mineral driven, rich palate with linear acid which is almost Mosel in style. Lime zest and flinty characters on the nose and palate.

2012 Ungeheurer GG – Zesty and Fruity

Ripe apricot, melon and cantaloupe with light minerality and ripe, rich fruit on the palate with a concentrated long finish.

Stay tuned next week for Part 2 – Rhine!

Georg Mosbacher cellar Pfalz